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Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing and responsible disposal of waste
There are 3 different set of rules for different categories of waste that are produced by us:
The latest set of rules related to SWM (Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2016,
can be found here. This rule makes it mandatory for all the residents/ companies/SME’s/Commercial
complexes/ Malls etc. to segregate their waste and treat the wet waste at source.
The commonly practiced technologies for SWM can be grouped under three major categories, i.e., bio-
processing, thermal processing and sanitary landfill. The bio-processing method includes aerobic and
anaerobic composting. Thermal methods are incineration and pyrolysis. Sanitary landfill is generally used
to dispose off the final rejects coming out of the biological and thermal waste processing units.
3.1 What is aerobic composting?
Aerobic composting (in presence of Oxygen) is the creation of fertilizing compost using bacteria that
thrive in an oxygen-rich environment. Aerobic composting is considered the fastest method of composting,
but involves more work interms of rotating the organic material periodically.
3.2 What is anaerobic composting?
Anaerobic composting (In absence of Oxygen) is the conversion of organic waste to compost using
bacteria that thrive in absence of oxygen. Anaerobic composting is known to work slowly, but also
requires lesser work.
3.3 What is incineration?
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion (burning) of organic substances
contained in waste materials. Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and
heat. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.
3.4 What is a sanitary landfill?
A sanitary landfill is a low-lying area that is filled with waste rejects. It has a liner at the bottom to prevent
the groundwater from contaminating with the mix of the liquid that oozes from the waste that is buried
called the leachate. Waste is buried in-between layers of soil and is compacted nicely to make it a hard
surface. When the landfill is completed, it is capped with a layer of clay or a synthetic liner in order to
prevent water from entering. A final topsoil cover is placed, compacted and graded, and various forms of
vegetation may be planted in order to reclaim the otherwise useless land.
Only a handful of us are using at least one of the above mentioned techniques, we generally just get rid of
the waste instead of processing, treating or managing it!
It lands in the dump yard where it reaches after burning tonnes of fossil fuel. This results in unwanted
leachates (pollutant to soil and underground water), dangerous gases (SO x & NO x ) which causes Air
pollution. These factors has a negative health effects to the society; especially to kids and senior citizens
(Blue baby syndrome). Many a times the waste is illegally dumped in our ponds, mangroves etc. thus
challenging the ecosystem.
Transportation and storage of waste is done by conventional methods which involve use of fossil fuels and
other un-sophisticated systems which add to the overall carbon footprint of the process. Moreover, the
unprocessed waste also releases green house gases (GHG’s) like Methane, Carbon-di- oxide and Water
vapour which are contributors to global warming. Thus impacting the local and global climate over a
period of time, majorly due to the scale at which it is happening.
About 0.1 million tonnes (10000000 Kgs) of municipal solid waste is generated in India every day. That is
approximately 36.5 million tonnes (36500000000 Kgs) annually.
Segregate your waste, give dry waste for recycling, Non-recyclable waste to pyrolysis and organic waste
Segregation involves sorting of waste into various categories and disposing them separately like Wet
waste, Dry waste, Biomedical waste, E waste and hazardous waste to name a few.
10.1 Wet waste
Wet waste consists of everything that is natural in origin and can be decomposed and become part of eco system if kept over a period of time; edible to humans or animals; irrespective of the appearance, feel or texture, including but not limited to vegetable and fruit peels and pieces, onion peels, dry leaves, coconut shells, tea leaves, coffee grounds, eggshells, bones and entrails, fish scales, as well as cooked food (both veg and non-veg).
Exception- The only exception to above definition is soiled tissue paper which will always go in wet waste bin.
10.2 Dry Waste
All products that are manufactured artificially in factories and industries including but not limited to Paper, plastics, metal, glass, rubber, thermocol, styrofoam, fabric, leather, rexine, wood – and anything that can be kept for an extended period without decomposing is classified as dry waste.
10.3 Hazardous waste
Household hazardous waste or HHW include three sub-categories – E-waste; toxic substances such as paints, cleaning agents, solvents, insecticides and their containers, other chemicals; and biomedical waste.
E-waste or electronic waste consists of batteries, computer parts, wires, electrical equipment of any kind, electrical and electronic toys, remotes, watches, cell phones, bulbs, tube lights and CFLs.
10.5 Biomedical waste
This includes used menstrual cloth, sanitary napkins, disposable diapers, pet poop, bandages and any material that is contaminated with blood or other body fluids.
Decentralised waste disposal system refers to retreating from the conventional and irresponsible disposal of waste that is being carried out in majority of the cities of India.
Zero waste philosophy is taking charge/responsibility of waste produced by you and getting it properly treated/ processed before being reutilised. Believe it or not we can make your organisation/ Society a Zero waste disposal entity.
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